Original Article

The effect of stereotypical music on the customer selection of wine in an online environment

Marlou Damen
Iris van Hest
Bart Wernaart
  • Explore the Article >>
  • PDF

Main Article Content


The digital transformation of marketing leads to new forms of interaction with consumers. It has been established and well known that auditory stimuli generally affect human behavior. However, in the field of sensory marketing, only limited attention has been paid to the role and effects of audition in online marketing. In this research, we will further explore how sound influences consumer product selection in a digitalized setting. We have designed and performed an experiment in which respondents in a webshop environment were asked to select a bottle of wine from two different countries while hearing stereotypical music samples representing one of these countries. Our conclusion: In an online setting, auditory stimuli strongly influence consumer selection. In the case of constructed preferences, this effect was considerably stronger compared to well-defined preferences. These insights can help to further develop the effective use of sound stimuli in new forms of sensory marketing, such as virtual reality and other digital experiences in the marketing and sales context.

sensory marketing, auditory stimuli, consumer behavior, product selection, digital transformation

About this Article
Damen, M., van Hest, I., & Wernaart, B. (2021). The effect of stereotypical music on the customer selection of wine in an online environment. Journal of Innovations in Digital Marketing, 2(2), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.51300/jidm-2021-35

Article Details

Licensing Info

Afacan-Seref, K., Steinemann, N.A., Blangero, A., & Kelly, S.P. (2018). Dynamic interplay of value and sensory information in high-speed decision making. Current Biology, 28(5), 795-802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.071

Ageeva, E., Melewar, T.C., Foroudi, P., Dennis, C., & Jin, Z. (2018). Examining the influence of corporate website favorability on corporate image and corporate reputation: Findings from fsQCA. Journal of Business Research, 89, 287-304. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.01.036

Alkasasbeh, F. (2020). The effects Of COVID-19 on restaurant industry: A perspective article. Journal of Innovations in Digital Marketing, 1(1), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.51300/jidm-2020-16

Areni, C.S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on Shopping behavior: Classical versus top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer Research, 20(1), 336-340.

Barlow, A., Siddiqui, N., & Mannion, M. (2004). Development in Information and Communication Technologies for Retail Marketing Channels. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32(3), 157-163. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550410524948

Bettman, J.R., Luce, M.F., & Payne, J.W. (1998). Constructive Consumer Choice Processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(3), 187-217. https://doi.org/10.1086/209535

Carvalho, F., Van Ee, R., Rychtarikova, M., Touhafi, A., Steenhaut, K., Persoone, D., ... Leman, M. (2015). Does Music Influence the Multisensory Tasting Experience? Journal of sensory studies, 30(5), 404-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/joss.12168

Chebat, J.C., Chebat, C.G., & Vaillant, D. (2001). Environmental background music and in-store selling. Journal of Business Research, 54(2), 89-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00089-2

Chukwu, B.A., Kanu, E.C., & Ezeabogu, A.N. (2019). The impact of advertising on consumers buying behaviour. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 8(1), 1-15.

Danner, L., Johnson, T.E., Ristic, R., Meiselman, H.L., & Bastian, S.E. (2017). ”I like the sound of that!” Wine descriptions influence consumers’ expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Food Research International, 99, 263-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.05.019

Doucé, L., & Adams, C. (2020). Sensory overload in a shopping environment: Not every sensory modality leads to too much stimulation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 57, 102154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102154

Erenkol, A.D., & Merve, A.K. (2015). Sensory marketing. Journal of Administrative Sciences and Policy Studies, 3(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.15640/jasps.v3n1a1

Fiore, S.G., & Kelly, S. (2007). Surveying the use of sound in online stores: Practices, possibilities and pitfalls for user experience. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550710755967

Goi, C. (2012). The Impact of Colours on Online Marketing Communications. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 6, 182-186.

Gottwald, S., & Braun, D.A. (2019). Bounded rational decision-making from elementary computations that reduce uncertainty. Entropy, 21(4).

Guéguen, N., & Jacob, C. (2014). Congruency between instrumental background music and behavior on a website. Psychology of Music, 42(1), 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735612453487

Hagtvedt, H., & Brasel, S.A. (2016). Cross-Modal Communication: Sound Frequency Influences Consumer Responses to Color Lightness. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(4), 551-562. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.14.0414

Hilton, K. (2015). Psychology: The science of sensory marketing. Harvard Business Review, (pp. 28-31).

Hoyer, W.D., Macinnis, D.J., & Pieters, R. (2016). Consumer behavior (7 ed). Boston: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Hultén, B., Broweus, N., & Dijk, M.V. (2009). Marketing 3.0. In and others (Ed.), Sensory Marketing (pp. 24-40). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230237049_2

Joachimsthaler, E., & Aaker, D.A. (1997). Building brands without mass media. Harvard Business Review, 75(1), 39-48.

Kellaris, J.J., Cox, A.D., & Cox, D. (1993). The Effect of Background Music on Ad Processing: A Contingency Explanation. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 114-125. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700409

Kerruish, E. (2019). Arranging sensations: smell and taste in augmented and virtual reality. The Senses and Society, 14(1), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/17458927.2018.1556952

Knoeferle, K.M., Knoeferle, P., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2016). Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers’ visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22(2), 196-210. https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000084

Krishna, A. (2012). An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. Journal of consumer psychology, 22(3), 332-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.08.003

Krishna, A., & Schwarz, N. (2014). Sensory marketing, embodiment, and grounded cognition: A review and introduction. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(2), 159-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2013.12.006

Langan, R., Cowley, S., & Nguyen, C. (2019). The State of Digital Marketing in Academia: An Examination of Marketing Curriculum’s Response to Digital Disruption. Journal of Marketing Education, 41(1), 32-46. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475318823849

Lou, C., & Yuan, S. (2019). Influencer marketing: how message value and credibility affect consumer trust of branded content on social media. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 19(1), 58-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2018.1533501

Manzano, R., Serra, T., & Gavilán, D. (2019). Sensory Marketing: Straight to the Emotions. Retrieved from https://www.ie.edu/insights/articles/sensory-marketing- straight-to-the-emotions/

March, J.G. (1978). Bounded Rationality, Ambiguity, and the Engineering of Choice. The Bell Journal of Economics, 9(2), 587-608. https://doi.org/10.2307/3003600

Martínez-López, F.J., Anaya-Sánchez, R., Giordano, M.F., & Lopez-Lopez, D. (2020). Behind influencer marketing: key marketing decisions and their effects on followers’ responses. Journal of Marketing Management, 36(7-8), 579-607. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2020.1738525

Matz, S.C., Kosinski, M., Nave, G., & Stillwell, D.J. (2017). Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114, 12714-12719. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710966114

Mazali, T. (2018). From industry 4.0 to society 4.0, there and back. AI & SOCIETY, 33(3), 405-411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-017-0792-6

Mccutcheon, E., Bruwer, J., & Li, E. (2009). Region of origin and its importance among choice factors in the wine-buying decision making of consumers. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 21(3), 212-234. https://doi.org/10.1108/17511060910985953

Milliman, R.E. (1982). Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 46(3), 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298204600313

Milliman, R.E. (1986). The Influence of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant Patrons. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 286-289. https://doi.org/10.1086/209068

Mouratidis, K., & Papagiannakis, A. (2021). COVID-19, internet, and mobility: The rise of telework, telehealth, e-learning, and e-shopping. Sustainable Cities and Society, 74, 103182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.103182

Msallati, A. (2021). Investigating the nexus between the types of advertising messages and customer engagement: Do customer involvement and generations matter. Journal of Innovations in Digital Marketing, 2(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.51300/jidm-2021-31

North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J., & Mckendrick, J. (1999). The influence of in-store music on wine selections. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(2), 271-276. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.2.271

Petit, O., Cheok, A.D., Spence, C., Velasco, C., & Karunanayaka, K.T. (2015). Sensory marketing in light of new technologies. In and others (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (pp. 1-4). https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2832932.2837006

Petit, O., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2019). Digital Sensory Marketing: Integrating New Technologies Into Multisensory Online Experience. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 45, 42-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2018.07.004

Podoshen, J. (2005). Brand Sense: How to Build Powerful Brands Through Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight and Sound. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(4), 278-279. https://doi.org/10.1108/sd.2006.05622bae.001

Rana, N.P., Slade, E.L., Sahu, G.P., Kizgin, H., Singh, N., Dey, B., ... Dwived, Y.K. (2020). Digital and Social Media Marketing. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24374-6

Rathee, R., & Rajain, P. (2019). Online shopping environments and consumer’s need for touch. Journal of advances in management research, 16(5), 814-826. https://doi.org/10.1108/JAMR-12-2018-0116

Reinikainen, H., Munnukka, J., Maity, D., & Luoma-Aho, V. (2020). You really are a great big sister’-parasocial relationships, credibility, and the moderating role of audience comments in influencer marketing. Journal of marketing management, 36(3-4), 279-298. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2019.1708781

Reynolds-Mcilnay, R., & Morrin, M. (2019). Increasing shopper trust in retailer technological interfaces via auditory confirmation. Journal of Retailing, 95(4), 128-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2019.10.006

Rodríguez, F.E.M. (2020). Influencing Consumers’ Buying Behavior through Smell: An Abstract. In P. F., W. S., & K. N. (Eds.), Enlightened Marketing in Challenging Times. AMSWMC 2019. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer.

Santos, J.F., & Ribeiro, J.C. (2012). The Portuguese online wine buying consumer. EuroMed Journal of Business, 7(3), 294-311. https://doi.org/10.1108/14502191211265343

Scott, S.P. (2021). A Marketer’s Symphony: Essays on the Power of Musical Structure and Its Influence on Consumers with Foundations for Future Research in Audio Sensory Marketing. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/docview/2512268545?pq- origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

Spence, C., Reinoso-Carvalho, F., Velasco, C., & Wang, Q.J. (2019). Extrinsic Auditory Contributions to Food Perception & Consumer Behaviour: an Interdisciplinary Review. Multisensory Research, 32(4-5), 275-318. https://doi.org/10.1163/22134808-20191403

Spence, C., & Zampini, M. (2006). Auditory contributions to multisensory product perception. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 92, 1009-1025.

Starostová, A. (2017). The Role of Sensory Marketing in Product Innovation. In and others (Ed.), Innovation Management,

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (IMES 2017) (pp. 963-973). Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze.

Stephen, A.T. (2016). The role of digital and social media marketing in consumer behavior. Current opinion in psychology, 10, 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.016

Susino, M., & Schubert, E. (2019). Cultural stereotyping of emotional responses to music genre. Psychology of Music, 47(3), 342 -357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735618755886

Wang, Q., & Spence, C. (2015). Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting. I-perception, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669515593027

Wernaart, B. (2021). Developing a roadmap for the moral programming of smart technology. Technology in Society, 64, 101466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101466

Wiedmann, K.P., Labenz, F., Haase, J., & Hennigs, N. (2018). The power of experiential marketing: exploring the causal relationships among multisensory marketing, brand experience, customer perceived value and brand strength. , 25(2), . Journal of Brand Management, 25(2), 101-118. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-017-0061-5

Zhang, W., Chintagunta, P.K., & Kalwani, M.U. (2021). Social Media, Influencers, and Adoption of an Eco-Friendly Product: Field Experiment Evidence from Rural China. Journal of Marketing, 85(3), 10-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242920985784